Romania on the world map. Map of Romania
Map of Romania with cities. Where Romania is on the world map. The main geographical facts about Romania - population, country area, capital, official language, religions, industry and culture.
Romania Fact File
Official name Romania
Form of government Republic with two legislative bodies (Senate and House of Deputies)
Area 237,500 sq km (91,699 sq miles)
Time zone GMT + 2 hours
Projected population 2015 21,437,000
Population density 94 per sq km (243.4 per sq mile)
Life expectancy 70.4
Infant mortality (per 1,000) 18.9
Official language Romanian
Other languages Hungarian, German, Romany
Literacy rate 97%
Religions Romanian Orthodox 87%, Roman Catholic 5 %, Protestant 5 %, other 3 %
Ethnic groups Romanian 89.1 %, Hungarian 8.9%, other 2 %
Economy Industry 38%, services 34%, agriculture 28%
GNP per capita US$ 6,800
Climate Temperate; cold winters and warm, wet summers; cooler in Carpathian Mountains
Highest point Moldoveanu 2,544 m (8,346 ft)
Map reference Page 296
Except for its Black Sea coast, Romania is landlocked—by Ukraine to the north, Moldova to the northeast, Hungary to the west, Serbia and Montenegro to the southwest, and Bulgaria to the south. From the sixth century ad the country was often invaded. From the ninth to the eleventh centuries Magyars occupied part of Transylvania and between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries Walachia, Moldova, and Transylvania formed part of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of the First World War, Bessarabia—most of present-day Moldova—Transylvania and Bukovina were restored to Romania. Much of this land was lost during the Second World War when Romania, which sided with Nazi Germany, came under Soviet control.
During Nicolai Ceausescu's oppressive regime, beginning in 1967, Romania distanced itself from the Soviets. In 1989 a popular uprising saw Ceausescu arrested and executed. Romania is now ruled by an elected parliament headed by a president.
The Carpathian Mountains curve through the center of the country, dividing the timbered uplands of Transylvania from the Danube Plain. The southern part of the range, the Transylvanian Alps, contains the highest peaks and the most rugged scenery. The fertile eastern plain is crossed by many tributaries of the Danube. To the east, around the Danube Delta, the land is marshy and dotted with numerous lakes and lagoons.
There has been a shift towards heavy industries since the 1970s but agriculture is still economically important. Maize, wheat, vegetables, and grapes for wine are the main crops and sheep and pigs the main livestock. Romania is rich in coal, natural gas, iron ore, and petroleum. Most of the raw materials for the country's industries are imported. Prominent industries include chemical and metal processing and machine manufacturing. Lumbering has depleted much of the country's forest and industry has caused widespread pollution. Moves to a market economy have been slow and Romania's standard of living remains relatively low.